A report about SYDNEY

 

 

Sydney is composed of hundreds suburbs commonly known as Sydney metropolitan area extending from Penrith in the west, south to Campbelltown, north to Windsor and palm beach (refer Map 1).

 

* * * * * Please note all APO members are spread all over the suburbs of Sydney.

 

Sydney is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of over 4,200,000 people, and 151,920 within the city centre.[1] Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales, and is the site of the first European colony in Australia, established in 1788 at Sydney Cove by Arthur Phillip, leader of the First Fleet from Britain.[2] A resident of the city is referred to as a Sydneysider.

Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast. The city is built around Port Jackson, which includes Sydney Harbour, leading to the city's nickname, "the Harbour City". It is Australia's largest financial centre and the economic capital, home to many national headquarters of corporations, including the Australian Stock Exchange. Sydney's leading economic sectors include property and business services, retail, manufacturing, tourism and health and community services.

Sydney is also a major international tourist destination, often referred to as the international gateway of Australia, and is notable for its beaches and twin landmarks: the Sydney Opera House and the Harbour Bridge. The metropolitan area is surrounded by national parks, and contains many bays, rivers and inlets. It has been recognised as a global city, by the Loughborough University group.[3]

The city has played host to numerous international sporting events, including the 1938 British Empire Games, 2000 Summer Olympics and the 2003 Rugby World Cup. In 2008, Sydney will also host the 23rd Roman Catholic World Youth Day.

Sydney is one of the most multicultural cities in the world which reflects its role as a major destination for immigrants to Australia.[4] According to the Mercer cost of living survey, Sydney is Australias most expensive city, and the 19th most expensive in the world.[5]

 

GEOGRAPHY

Sydney is in a coastal basin bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north and the Woronora Plateau to the south. Sydney lies on a submergent coastline, where the ocean level has risen to flood deep river valleys (rias) carved in the sandstone. One of these drowned valleys, Port Jackson, better known as Sydney Harbour, is the largest natural harbour in the world.[11] There are more than 70 harbour and ocean beaches, including the famous Bondi Beach, in the urban area. Sydney's urban area covers 1687 square kilometres (651 mi) as at 2001.[12] The Sydney Statistical Division, used for census data, is the unofficial metropolitan area[13] and covers 12,145 square kilometres (4,689 mi).[14] This area includes the Central Coast and Blue Mountains as well as broad swathes of national park and other unurbanised land.

Geographically, Sydney sprawls over two major regions: the Cumberland Plain, a relatively flat region lying to the south and west of the harbour, and the Hornsby Plateau, a sandstone plateau lying mainly to the north of the harbour, dissected by steep valleys. The oldest parts of the city are located in the flat areas south of the harbour; the North Shore was slower to develop because of its hilly topography, and was mostly a quiet backwater until the Sydney Harbour Bridge was opened in 1932, linking it to the rest of the city.

 

URBAN STRUCTURE

The extensive area covered by urban Sydney is formally divided into more than 300 suburbs (for addressing and postal purposes), and administered as 38 local government areas. There is no city-wide government, but the Government of New South Wales and its agencies have extensive responsibilities in providing metropolitan services.[22] The City of Sydney itself covers a fairly small area comprising the central business district and its neighbouring inner-city suburbs. In addition, regional descriptions are used informally to conveniently describe larger sections of the urban area. These include Eastern Suburbs, Hills District, Inner West, Lower North Shore, Northern Beaches, North Shore, St George, Southern Sydney, South-eastern Sydney, South-western Sydney, Sutherland Shire and Western Sydney. However, many suburbs are not conveniently covered by any of these categories.

Sydney's central business district (CBD) extends southwards for about 2 kilometres (1.25 mi) from Sydney Cove, the point of the first European settlement. Densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings including historic sandstone buildings such as the Sydney Town Hall and Queen Victoria Building are interspersed by several parks such as Wynyard and Hyde Park. The Sydney CBD is bounded on the east side by a chain of parkland that extends from Hyde Park through the Domain and Royal Botanic Gardens to Farm Cove on the harbour. The west side is bounded by Darling Harbour, a popular tourist and nightlife precinct while Central station marks the southern end of the CBD. George Street serves as the Sydney CBD's main north-south thoroughfare.

Although the CBD dominated the city's business and cultural life in the early days, other business/cultural districts have developed in a radial pattern since World War II. As a result, the proportion of white-collar jobs located in the CBD declined from more than 60 per cent at the end of World War II to less than 30 per cent in 2004. Together with the commercial district of North Sydney, joined to the CBD by the Harbour Bridge, the most significant outer business districts are Parramatta in the central-west, Blacktown in the west, Bondi Junction in the east, Liverpool in the southwest, Chatswood to the north, and Hurstville to the south.

 

 

Map 1- Sydney metropolitan area (satellite image)

 

 

DENSITY

Sydney is particularly noted for its low population density. The reasons for Sydney's low-density development are rooted in its history. Surrounded by land that was considered unowned by the city's founders, early Sydney enjoyed relatively low land values, allowing more residents to acquire larger plots on which to live. This was reinforced by Sydney's development as a predominantly middle class, commercial city, in which even the working classes enjoyed higher wages and living standards than their counterparts in Europe.

Finally, Sydney acquired its public transport system early on in its life. Working-class suburbs could thus be built far from the city centre, whereas in older cities, the need to maintain walking distance between residential and employment centres kept sprawl to a minimum.[23]

Coupled with successive governments' willingness to release new land on the city's outskirts for further development, this history has given Sydney a low-density self-image. Ingrained hostility to urban consolidation and higher density living represents a major challenge to the city's future growth.

 

 

GOVERNANCE

Apart from the limited role of the Cumberland County Council from 19451964, there has never been an overall governing body for the Sydney metropolitan area; instead, the metropolitan area is divided into local government areas (LGAs). These areas have elected councils which are responsible for functions delegated to them by the New South Wales State Government, such as planning and garbage collection.

The City of Sydney includes the central business area and some adjoining inner suburbs, and has in recent years been expanded through amalgamation with adjoining local government areas, such as South Sydney. It is led by the elected Lord Mayor of Sydney and a council. The Lord Mayor, however, is sometimes treated as a representative of the whole city, for example during the Olympics.

The 38 LGAs in Sydney are:

  • Ashfield
  • Auburn
  • Bankstown
  • Baulkham Hills
  • Blacktown
  • Botany Bay
  • Burwood
  • Camden
  • Campbelltown
  • Canada Bay
  • Canterbury
  • Fairfield
  • Holroyd
  • Hornsby
  • Hunter's Hill
  • Hurstville
  • Kogarah
  • Ku-ring-gai
  • Lane Cove
  • Leichhardt
  • Liverpool
  • Manly
  • Marrickville
  • Mosman
  • North Sydney
  • Parramatta
  • Penrith
  • Pittwater
  • Randwick
  • Rockdale
  • Ryde
  • Strathfield
  • Sutherland
  • Sydney
  • Warringah
  • Waverley
  • Willoughby
  • Woollahra

New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is Australia's most populous state, located in the south-east of the country, north of Victoria and south of Queensland. It was founded in 1788 and originally comprised much of the Australian mainland, as well as New Zealand, Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria, Queensland and New Zealand.

An inhabitant of New South Wales is referred to as a New South Welshman.

It is unknown whether New South Wales refers to the area being named after South Wales, or a New Wales in the Southern Hemisphere.

 

DEMOGRAPHICS

3,455,110 people lived in Sydney's urban area as at 2001. As of 2005 there are an estimated 4,254,894 people living in the Sydney Statistical Division with a population density of 345.7 persons per square kilometre, Inner Sydney being the most densely populated place in Australia with 4023 persons per square kilometre. The statistical division is larger in area than the urban area, as it allows for predicted growth. A resident of Sydney is commonly referred to as a Sydneysider.

In the 2001 census, the most common self-described ancestries identified for Sydney residents were Australian, English, Irish, and Italian. The Census also recorded that 1% of Sydney's population identified as being of indigenous origin and 31.2% were born overseas. The three major sources of immigrants are the United Kingdom, China and New Zealand. Significant numbers of immigrants also came from Vietnam, Lebanon, Greece, Italy, India and the Philippines. Most Sydneysiders are native speakers of English; many have a second language, the most common being Chinese languages, Arabic (including the Lebanese dialect) and Greek. Sydney has the seventh largest percentage of a foreign born population in the world, ahead of cities such as the highly multicultural London and Paris.

Some ethnic groups are associated with the suburbs where they first settled: the Italians with Leichhardt, Haberfield, Five Dock, Greeks with Earlwood and Marrickville, Portuguese with Petersham, Lebanese with Lakemba and Bankstown, Koreans with Campsie and Strathfield, ethnic Macedonians with Rockdale, Irish and New Zealanders with Bondi, Jews with Bondi, Waverley, St Ives and Rose Bay, Indians with Westmead and Parramatta, Chinese with Hurstville, Chatswood, Ashfield and Haymarket (where Sydney's Chinatown has emerged), Armenians with Ryde and Willoughby, Serbs with Liverpool, Turks with Auburn, Filipinos with Blacktown and Mount Druitt, and Vietnamese with Cabramatta.

The median age of a Sydney resident is 34, with 12% of the population over 65 years. 15.2% of Sydney residents have educational attainment equal to at least a bachelor's degree, which is lower than the national average of 19%. Approximately 67% of Sydney residents describe themselves as Christian, the most common denominations being Catholic and Anglican. About 9% of the population practises a non-Christian religion, the most common being Buddhism and Islam, both at 3.4% of Sydney's total population. About 12% of Sydney residents are not religious.

According to the 2001 census, 29.9% of Sydney residents identified as Catholics, 20.1% as Anglicans, 17.8% as members of other Christian denominations, 3.4% as Buddhists, 3.4% as Muslims, 1.2% as Hindus, 0.8% as Jews and 11.9% as having no religion.

 

To give you a bigger picture, these maps are according to order where Sydney Metro is.

 

 

MAP 2- Map of Australia

 

 

 

MAP 3- Map of New South Wales ( showing where Sydney Metro is)

 

 

Map 4- Map of Sydney Metro (showing Local Government Area)

 

Prepared by:

 

Brod Lito Briones
IVP-Web E-com Support


Comelec Member, ARAP